4 common types of fire sprinkler


What is the small difference between the sprinkler heads (fire sprinklers) facing up, down, wall and ceiling? How do they work and what are their features? What types of fire sprinkler nozzles are most used in Vietnam?

- Installing new fire sprinklers - or replacing old fire sprinklers - can be a difficult process. Although all types of fire sprinklers have close similarities, different fire sprinklers are designed for different environments and different applications.

- All fire sprinkler heads are one of four types: upward, downward, wall-mounted, or ceiling-mounted. In this article, let's analyze how they are similar or different.

1. How do fire sprinklers work?

2. What is the temperature of the fire sprinkler light bulb?

3. Standard response or quick response sprinkler heads?

4. K-Factor fire sprinkler head?

5. What is head down?

6. What is an upward nozzle?

7. What is a horizontal nozzle?

8. What is a ceiling sprinkler?

9. Types of fire sprinklers for special applications

* How do fire sprinkler work?


Đầu phun sprinkler chữa cháy khác nhau ở điểm gì?

Cấu tạo đầu phun sprinkler chữa cháy

- Nearly all fire sprinklers are made of the same parts: a seal or 'plug' that prevents water from escaping, a heat-sensitive part that allows the water to flow at a certain temperature determination, efficient water distribution deflector and frame. Fire sprinkler heads have heat-sensitive parts - glass bulbs or fusible links - that cause them to activate at a specific temperature.

- When the sprinkler head has a glass bulb, the bulb usually contains a glycerin-based liquid. When the air around the sprinkler head reaches a certain temperature - usually 155F or 200F (68C or 93C) - the liquid expands, causing the glass to break. The water trapped by the bulb then escapes and flows toward the deflector plate, dispersing it throughout the room.

- Fusible bonded fire sprinklers replace that bulb with metal parts that are fastened to the sprinkler using a heat-sensitive alloy. The increased temperature causes the alloy to melt, allowing metal particles to fall from the sprinkler head and activate the sprinkler.

- Most fire sprinklers come in two main sizes: 1/2″ (12.7 mm) and 3/4″ (19.3 mm). The 1/2'' size is the most common size for office buildings, hotels and schools. On the other hand, 3/4″ size fire sprinkler are used when larger amounts of water are needed.

* What is the temperature of fire sprinkler head bulbs regulated?

The temperature rating of the fire sprinkler head is the temperature at which it will activate, closely monitor the ceiling temperature rise. Options range from 135 to 650 degrees F (38 to 343 degrees C). These ratings can be determined by the color of the liquid inside the bulb (listed below) in the case of glass bulb sprinklers:

Đầu phun sprinkler chữa cháy khác nhau ở điểm gì?

* What is a standard response or quick response sprinkler head?

- Not all fire sprinklers are designed for the same purpose. Fast response sprinklers are often used in dormitories, hotels, auditoriums and crowded places. Sprinkler heads that meet the standards are found in industrial and commercial spaces where preserving a building and its contents is a priority.

- Rapid response fire sprinklers cool walls, ceilings and surrounding air to give building occupants an opportunity to escape and delay flashover - a response The deadly chain leads to extremely high temperatures and loss of all oxygen in the room. The glass bulb used in quick response fire sprinkler heads has a diameter of 3mm. Because they are smaller than the 5mm bulbs used in standard reaction sprinklers, 3mm glass bulbs are more sensitive to thermal changes and therefore discharge sooner than standard reaction sprinklers.

- Response time varies depending on room and fire characteristics, but differences in thermal sensitivity between these types of sprinklers can result in activation times varying by 10 seconds or more. Research over the past three decades shows that these extra seconds can have a serious impact on human survival during a fire.

Đầu phun sprinkler chữa cháy khác nhau ở điểm gì?

* K coefficient of fire sprinkler door?

- Fire sprinklers with a high K factor will have larger spray holes, allowing them to discharge more water at lower pressure and create larger water droplets capable of penetrating the fire. The most common K factor is K5.6 for fire sprinklers with 1/2″ (12.7mm) threaded connections and K8.0 for fire sprinklers with 3/4″ (19.1mm) threaded connections ).

- Buildings with greater fire loads - defined in NFPA 557 (2016) section 3.3.5 as a measure of the total energy content of combustible materials in a building - should be protected by Use fire sprinklers with a higher K coefficient. Fire sprinklers for light hazard environments (including many churches, offices, and apartments) must deliver one-tenth of a gallon per minute per square foot, which is two-tenths of a gallon per minute per square foot in this environment. common hazards (such as parking garages), and up to four-tenths of a gallon per minute per square foot in highly flammable hazardous spaces.

- Sprinkler head coverage can cover up to 225 square feet in hazardous environments, 130 square feet in normal hazardous environments; and 100 square feet in an extremely hazardous environment.

Đầu phun sprinkler chữa cháy khác nhau ở điểm gì?

*Nozzle facing down?

A downward-facing (downward) fire sprinkler installs from pipes in the ceiling and distributes water in a dome or cone shape using a convex deflector. Unlike recessed sprinkler heads behind decorative panels, traditional face-down fire sprinkler heads remain visible after installation.

Đầu phun sprinkler chữa cháy khác nhau ở điểm gì?

- Major manufacturers offer turn-down fire sprinklers in a variety of K-factors, nozzle sizes and spray patterns to protect buildings of all types, from multi-story warehouses to daycares. The most common downward fire sprinklers have a 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) threaded connection and a 5.6 K-factor, like Viking's VK302 and VK102 fire sprinklers, TY-series sprinklers. B from Tyco, FireLock V27 from Victaulic and ZN......

- However, small differences in a sprinkler's approvals and safety listings, design and manufacturing processes can make one sprinkler head much more suitable for some environments than others. other.

*What are the standards for fire sprinkler ?

- UL and FM Global listings and approvals attest to the fire sprinkler's suitability for fire protection service and are standard for sprinkler systems installed in the United States. But some stand-alone sprinklers, like Viking's VK302 and VK102, are approved by international organizations - such as Germany's VdS and China's Fire Products Certification Center (CCCF).

>>> Fire protection standards, UL, FM >>>>>>

*Anti-corrosion standards

The list also extends to the protective coating of fire sprinkler heads. Although there are no universal corrosion-resistant coatings, special coatings manufactured in accordance with NFPA 13 (2019: sections and 6.2.6) help extend the life of critical components in places such as indoor swimming facilities, steam rooms and seaside hotels, as well as factories and industrial spaces where corrosive vapors are present. Tyco's white polyester coating, used with sprinklers in the TY-B K5,6 series of rapid response sprinklers, is both UL and C-UL listed for corrosion resistance .

Đầu phun sprinkler chữa cháy khác nhau ở điểm gì?

Đầu phun sprinkler chữa cháy Tyco TYB

* Structure of fire sprinkler 

Most suspended sprinkler heads protrude from the ceiling, making the frame visible. The frame at the core of each fire sprinkler head is manufactured in a process called metal casting.

* What is an upward nozzle?

- An upward (vertical) fire sprinkler head sprays water onto a concave deflector, creating a dome-shaped spray pattern. They install deflectors to cover specific areas and prevent ice debris from settling at the tip. Vertical sprinklers are installed where obstructions prevent coverage and in dry pipe systems exposed to freezing temperatures.

- Vertical fire sprinklers are commonly used in warehouses or industrial spaces, along with renovated open ceiling structures such as modern office buildings and luxury restaurants. For industrial, commercial and warehouse spaces, vertical sprinklers are most suitable with a 3/4″ (19.05 mm) threaded connection with an 8.0 K factor, such as those included in the series. Viking's VK200 series and Victaulic's V34 series. Many vertical sprinklers are also available with bores smaller than 5.6K, including Tyco's TY-FRB series and Victaulic's V27 series and VK300 models.

Đầu phun sprinkler chữa cháy khác nhau ở điểm gì?

Đầu phun sprinkler chữa cháy hướng lên VK200

* Anti-corrosion coating

In 2012, Viking introduced a corrosion-resistant electroless PTFE (ENT) nickel coating to several products in its commercial sprinkler line. To do so, Viking joins Victaulic and others in providing a paint finish capable of surviving UL 199's rigorous 30-day corrosion exposure test with little or no certification. rust. Additionally, many vertical sprinklers that meet Viking standards, including the VK100 5.6K Micromatic and VK200 8.0K Micromatic, are also available with a UL and FM approved anti-corrosion wax coating.

* Fire sprinkler nozzles respond quickly

First developed in the 1980s, early suppression, rapid response (ESFR) sprinklers have revolutionized the prevention of fires in storage facilities with high-impulse sprinklers. designed to penetrate deeply into burning fuel and fire plumes. Tyco has innovated in the market, introducing some of the earliest ESFR sprinklers, developing sprinklers for select cold storage facilities in 2012, and converting from earlier ESFR models to the 16.8 line of fire sprinklers. K Model ESFR-17 in 2015.

Đầu phun sprinkler chữa cháy khác nhau ở điểm gì?

Tyco TY-7126 ESFR quick response fire sprinkler head

* Wall nozzle (horizontal direction)?

- Partition fire sprinklers installed along walls or below beams.

- Concerns or obstacles that affect the use of other types of sprinklers. Most are designed to protect small rooms, closets or hallways and have a semicircular deflector that produces a crescent-shaped spray pattern.

- Horizontal lateral sprinklers should only be installed below flat, level, horizontal ceilings in accordance with their NFPA listing, approvals and guidelines. They are used in hotels, restaurants, churches and a variety of commercial structures and most side fire sprinklers use a 1/2'' (12.7 mm) threaded connection and have a No. 5.6K.

- Standard finish for most manufacturers' 5.6K horizontal sprinklers - such as Tyco TY-FRB series fire sprinklers, Viking's Microfast and Micromatic series and Victaulic's V27 series - included white, black, brass and chrome. Each manufacturer offers a slightly different variation of the side sprinkler head. These differences, including those listed below, can streamline installation and extend product life.


Đầu phun sprinkler chữa cháy khác nhau ở điểm gì?

* Ceiling mounted fire sprinkler 

- Concealed models install on walls or ceilings and completely cover the suspended or inclined sprinkler head using a concealed fire sprinkler cover. This heat-sensitive plate detaches at a temperature approximately 20 degrees lower than the fire sprinkler head, allowing the concealed sprinkler deflector to fall and the head to activate.

- Like downward, vertical sprinkler heads and horizontal spray nozzles, most concealed models feature 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) threaded connections and a 5.6 K-factor, which includes Victaulic's V38 line, Senju's CN-QR nozzle and Tyco's RFII (Royal Flush) line. Fire sprinkler shroud temperatures vary with the nozzle's activation temperature but are typically set at 139F (59 C) for 155F (68C) nozzles and 165F (74C) for 200F (93C) nozzles ).

- The appearance of fire sprinkler covers varies widely between manufacturers. While most sprinkler heads are available in white, chrome, black or brass, covers come in a wider variety of finishes, including woodgrain, metal and in some cases versions. custom paint.

4 loại đầu phun sprinkler chữa cháy thông dụng

Ceiling mounted fire sprinkler


In summary: The 4 types of fire sprinkler heads commonly used today all have similarities, differences, and especially their applications are also different for each fire fighting task.










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